StateGermany has been a democratic parliamentary federal republic since 1949. Following reunification in 1990 it now consists of 16 federal states. The Federal President is the head of state and the government is led by the Federal Chancellor.
AreaGermany covers an area of 357,022 sqkm. It is 876 kilometres from its northernmost tip to the southernmost point as the crow flies, and 640 kilometres from east to west.
PopulationGermany has the largest population of any European country, around 82 million – a density of 230 people per square kilometre.
Cities, towns and countrysideThe capital Berlin is also Germany's largest city, with a population of 3.4 million. Other cities with more than one million residents are Hamburg (1.8 million) and Munich (1.3 million). Cologne is just below the one-million mark. Frankfurt am Main (pop. 662,000) is a centre of international finance.
Germany is a country rich in natural beauty. Between the North Sea and Baltic coasts in the north and the peaks of the Alps in the south lie extremely diverse landscapes, with everything from wide expanses of river and lakeland scenery, hilly uplands and densely wooded regions to agricultural plains and industrial conurbations. The Zugspitze is the highest mountain in Germany at 2,963 metres. Germany's longest river is the Rhine, which flows through the country for a total of 865 kilometres. Germany has 16 national parks, 104 nature reserves and 15 biosphere reserves.